Welcome to Science Expeditions Extras! Dive deeper into your science kit’s theme and experiments. This month, learn a little extra about medieval times.

Most people think of castles as huge stone buildings, but the first ones—“motte and bailey castles”—were just wooden forts built high on hills called mottes. If watchers saw danger approaching, they’d warn the villagers living on the fenced lands, or baileys, below. Scroll down to learn more fun facts about the Middle Ages and to pick up some tips on your experiments.

checklist iconWhat Will You Need?

Gather the household items from the list below before you begin your experiments. Check off the items as you go or print the list here. All other materials are included in your kit.

Stained Glass

 clothesline (or a way to hang paper up for drying)

Fun Facts

The expression “eat like a king,”  which means to eat well, was very true for English Middle Age kings. Records of feasts usually listed two to five courses, with 20 or more different dishes per course! Usual dishes included lamb, partridges, fruits, and gold leafing on gingerbread.

Today, catapults are used to propel aircraft into the air in areas where there is not enough runway space for the planes to take off from the ground.

During the Middle Ages, many intellectuals studied classical Greek and Arabic texts. This inspired academics, like Sir Francis Bacon, to consider how the world works. He created the first model of the experimental method to test hypotheses that is used in the sciences today!

Aunt Charlie’s Corner

Aunt Charlie’s Corner

Expert tips to complete this month’s science experiments!

Catapult IconCatapult Workshop

Watch this experiment!

    • Weather may affect drying times for glue. Be sure to allow enough time for the glue to dry and the wooden pieces to set before moving to next steps.
    • Gently stretch out the rubber bands before wrapping them around the craft sticks to help prevent them from breaking.

      Stained Glass IconStained Glass

      • Before you start, place the designs on the plastic sheet to help keep your surface clean as you glue.
      • Don’t forget to draw a larger outline around the traced sections of your design. This will give you space to glue the tissue paper to the design.

      Stained Glass IconStained Glass Continued

      • Remember if sections of your design are side by side and the same color. Draw one larger outline around all those sections rather than cutting out each piece individually (though, that will work too!).
      • Weather may affect drying times for glue. Be sure to allow enough time for the glue to dry before displaying on a window.

      Try a medieval staple by baking bread with this recipe. Click here to download.

      Pumpernickel Printable


      The Middle Ages were not just filled with castles and catapults—learn more about medieval achievements.

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